From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. This also means that there is some intermediary substrate that the CYP1A2 gene decomposes, and if this gene has a mutation, it could lead to a higher risk of MI. The enzyme produced by this gene is responsible for about 95% of all caffeine metabolisation in your body. The study was funded by The Swedish Research Council and several oth Reduced calcium levels in the body can lead to osteoporosis. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. The primary purpose of it is to act as a toxin to defend the plants against herbivores. Smokers exhibit increased activity of this enzyme. Genetic tests can help identify such parameters. 43 There is some evidence, although not genome-wide significant, that polymorphisms in the gene are known to moderate the association between coffee consumption and hypertension 44 and myocardial infarction, 11 as well as the risk of breast cancer in … ... Coffee consumption had no associations in carriers of the (C) allele . Dr Helena Jernström and colleagues from Lund University and Malmo University in Sweden, carried out this research. This occurs typically 12-24 hours after stopping caffeine. It is thus interesting to analyze the effect of the variants of the CYP1A2 gene on an individual, based on their caffeine intake. The liver enzymes responsible for metabolising caffeine are called cytochrome P450 enzymes. Variations in the CYP1A2 gene have a big impact on how caffeine affects our bodies. Women with the A/A genotype who have a high caffeine intake have previously been shown to have a higher ratio of certain types of oestrogens, which is thought to be protective against breast cancer. This is why we include CYP1A2 in our caffeine report. Coffee, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction. The gene codes for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which plays a role in both coffee and oestrogen metabolism. Upload it to Xcode Life to know about your CYP1A2 caffeine metabolism and caffeine sensitivity variants. rs2472297 is a SNP located between the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes on ch 15q24.. A meta-analysis of four GWAS studies of coffee consumption among a total of ~8,000 coffee drinkers of European ancestry found that the rs2472297(T) was strongly associated with increased consumption (p = 5.4 x 10e-14). Incorporate physical activity into your routine. Individuals who are ho-mozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are “rapid” caffeine metabolizers, whereas car-riers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. Identification of this tendency will help in moderating coffee consumption, taking into account the individual's caffeine metabolism status. After all, it would be good to know if you are prone to guzzling down a little too much, especially when your caffeine sensitivity scale is tipped at the wrong end. remains controversial. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are "rapid" caffeine metabolizers, whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are "slow" caffeine metabolizers. The coding region starts at nucleotide 10 of exon 2. The main measurements of the study were caffeine intake, BP, and the activity of the CYP1A2 gene. In humans, the CYP1A2 enzyme is encoded by the CYP1A2 gene. Caffeine offers a range of benefits from something as small as over an afternoon slump to reducing the risk of some serious health conditions like heart diseases. However, rs762551(A) ... [PMID 22648710] CYP1A2 and coffee intake and the modifying effect of sex, age, and … Caffeine is a stimulant and the most commonly used drug on the planet. Yet another study associated DNA damage due to mutagens found in tobacco smoking could contribute to MI. Rapid metabolizers of coffee have the AA genotype and may unravel the protective effects of caffeine in the system. Some common food sources of caffeine include: Up to 400 milligrams of caffeine appears to be safe for most healthy adults. Analyze your CYP1A2 gene variants for Caffeine Metabolism, Find out if you carry the Slow or the Rapid variant of CYP1A2 gene, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/202502, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474926/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1735605/, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223974368_Caffeine_intake_and_CYP1A2_variants_associated_with_high_caffeine_intake_protect_non-smokers_from_hypertension, https://www.nature.com/articles/pr201770#:~:text=Maternal%20caffeine%20intake%20may%20increase,8%2C%209%2C%2010), Morning Person or a Night Owl: How Genes Influence Your Circadian Rhythm, How Genes Influence Caffeine-induced Insomnia, How Genes Influence The Risk Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, How Genes Influence Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. Studies have shown that taking caffeine before exercise improves performance. Individuals who have the TT genotype in this specific polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene may be fast metabolizers of caffeine. The half-life of caffeine in the human body is roughly 4-6 hours, which means caffeine naturally starts to breakdown after that time. These individuals have a greater risk for MI, independent of their smoking status. CYP1A2 metabolizes some pro … CYP1A2 is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of caffeine and some drugs. Approximately 10% of the population is found to be rapid caffeine metabolizers, showing a high tolerance to caffeine. A significant protective effect of coffee cancer. Coffee is the primary source of caffeine for Americans. Carriers … In non-smokers, CYP1A2 variants (having either a CC, AC or AA genotype) were associated with high caffeine intake, and also had low BP. ... it depends on what substance you are breaking down. The CYP1A2 gene breaks down caffeine, several major prescription drugs, and interacts with smoking. CYP1A2 codes for the production of 21-hydroxylase, which is part of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes. This family of enzymes is quite important as it is a part of many processes, that include breaking down drugs, production of cholesterol, hormones, and fats. This, in turn, increases your blood pressure for some time. This study investigated the effects of regular coffee intake on markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in coffee-naïve individuals, with novel analysis by rs762551 genotype. More infoOkay! The ability to produce this enzyme is coded for by the CYP1A2-gene. Aldosterone, also known as the salt-retaining hormone, regulates the amount of salt retained in the kidneys. Background: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from populations of European descent identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1-CYP1A2) genes that are associated with habitual caffeine and coffee consumption. Such people have two copies of the fast variant. This protein is involved in the breakdown of stimulants, drugs, nutrients, and other xenobiotics. They found a group of ‘highly inducible’ subjects that had a CYP1A2*1A/*1A genotype. Coffee And CYP1A2: 3 Ways High Caffeine Intake Can Affect You! This article explains the wide-ranging effects of this gene, caffeine intake,  cardiovascular health, hypertension, and even pregnancy! In a study conducted on 2014 people, people who were slow metabolizers of caffeine (C variant) and who consumed more than 3 cups of coffee per day had an association with increased risk for myocardial infarction. Women with the A variant who drank more than 300 mg of coffee per day were shown to be at an increased risk of giving birth to babies with low birth weight. This means that caffeine intake plays some role in protecting non-smokers from hypertension, by inducing CYP1A2. If you're primarily interested in coffee for the sake of fat loss, it may be wise not to consume it excessively and end up making your body more tolerant of caffeine. Dr. El-Sohemy suspected that the relationship between coffee and heart disease might also vary from one individual to the next. Smoking is capable of inducing the CYP1A2 enzyme. rs762551, also known as -164A>C or -163C>A, is a SNP encoding the CYP1A2*1F allele of the CYP1A2 gene. Initially, the increase in metabolism upon caffeine consumption can be evident. Some individuals have a mutation in this locus and thus have the AC genotype. Caffeine does not accumulate in our body, but is broken down in the liver. A typical cup of coffee contains 75-100mg of caffeine 2. A previous study showed that C->A polymorphism in the intron I of CYP1A2 was associated with increased caffeine metabolism. What is CYP1A2, aka the caffeine gene? In a similar study on 513 people, increased intake of coffee, among slow metabolizers, has an association with an increased risk for hypertension. The gene, known as CYP1A2, is also used by genetic testing firms to predict a person's risk of nonfatal heart attack. Caffeine intake increases adrenaline production. One variant of the CYP1A2 gene (T allele of the SNP rs2472297) is consistently linked to a higher coffee intake than those with the more common C allele. If your body is dependent on caffeine, eliminating caffeine from your diet may cause symptoms of withdrawal. Learn how your genes influence caffeine metabolism and more. The baseline activity of the enzyme is similar in CYP1A2*1F allele carriers and non-carriers. CYP1A2 is the key liver enzyme (special proteins that breakdown and use other substances) responsible for metabolizing caffeine. Therefore, you may be a fast or slow caffeine metabolizer based on your CYP1A2 genetics. A variant at the CYP1A2 gene can determine whether an individual is a fast or slow metabolizer of caffeine, and this has some effect on the blood pressure and cardiovascular health of an individual. In a two-way ANCOVA, a gene × coffee interactive effect was found on follow-up changes in systolic (P = 0.000) and diastolic (P = 0.007) blood pressure. When consumed in excess quantities, caffeine can lead to irregular heartbeat and breathing. The positive effects of coffee include lowering a feeling of tiredness and increasing alertness; however, it can also narrow the blood vessels. However, this effect can diminish in long-term coffee drinkers due to the developed tolerance. The study included participants who were genotyped at the CYP1A2 gene. It is the world's most widely consumed legal psychoactive drug. Variations in this gene broadly divide people into two groups of metabolizers: In particular, two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are found to influence caffeine metabolism: The haplotype CYP1A2*1F is associated with this variation. coffee consumption increases the risk of impaired fasting glucose in hypertension particularly among carriers of the slow CYP1A2 *1F allele. AA = CYP1A2*1F = Fast Metabolizer. April 2006; ... (CYP1A2 * 1F)i nt h e CYP1A2 gene de-creases enzyme inducibility as mea-sured by the ratio of plasma or urinary. Studies have shown that a genetic polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene can affect the rate at which caffeine is metabolized in the liver. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Resting metabolic rate describes the rate at which you burn calories at rest. CYP1A2 A gene for caffeine metabolism Caffeine has been used by athletes for a long time as a performance-enhancing drug. Gradually reduce the consumption of caffeine. However, the individuals that are slow metabolizers have a higher risk of MI. Supplementing with. Unfortunately, about 50 percent of the population has a variant in the CYP1A2 gene that leads to slow processing of caffeine. ... Coffee intake, glucose … A little caffeine during pregnancy appears to be safe in most cases. Some people have one slow and one fast copy of the variant and are said to be moderately tolerant to caffeine. Another is the AHR gene, which controls when and how the CYP1A2 gene is switched on and off (2). Women with at least one (C) allele who consumed coffee had … The large variability of CYP1A2 activity influences the clearance of caffeine and may be affected by factors such as gender, race, genetic polymorphisms, disease, and exposure to inducers 16,17,19. The pharmacologic effect of these variants remains to be proven with experimental studies. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. One is the CYP1A2 gene that encodes for a liver enzyme critical for the metabolism of caffeine. Researchers have discovered a caffeine gene that regulates whether people are slow or fast metabolizers of caffeine. The enzyme CYP1A2 is responsible for metabolizing caffeine in the body and determines whether the individual is a slow or a fast caffeine metabolizer. If you've ever wondered why you can't drink coffee after 3pm and your friends can drink it at dinner, this gene likely holds the answer. In the body, CYP1A2 accounts for around 95% of caffeine metabolism. But for people who were still smoking, the same gene expressed an association with increased blood pressure. More infoOkay! Many studies, as noted above, seem to link the activity of this gene to caffeine intake. This suggests that the intake of caffeine has some role in this association. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. A study aimed to tie these concepts together to find the relationship between this gene and blood pressure (BP). The enzyme efficiency varies between individuals. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Cortisol is a stress-related hormone and plays a role in protecting the body from stress, as well as reducing inflammation. This increase in fat-burn is what majorly contributes to the increase in metabolism. In a study conducted on 16719 people, people with the A variant, and who were non-smokers, were 35% less likely to be hypertensive than people with the C variant. During such times, the following remedies can help flush out caffeine from the system: If nothing else works, just wait! The caffeine you ingest passes through the stomach and small intestine, entering the bloodstream in a little as 15 minutes. This increases blood pressure and could lead to cardiovascular disease risk. The speed of this decline depends on your CYP1A2 gene, which controls an enzyme (also called CYP1A2) that is in charge of breaking … In non-smokers, CYP1A2 variants (having either a CC, AC, or AA genotype) were associated with hypertension. Polymorphisms within the CYP1A2 gene were recently shown to be associated with coffee intake (4 – 6). The babies are also at risk of being too small during the time of pregnancy. The CYP1A2 gene, also known as cytochrome P450 1A2 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. This section of Caffeine Basics explains the connection between coffee or caffeine, your genes, and heart … For these “slow metabolizers,” drinking coffee: One of these is a key enzyme called CYP1A2, which is responsible for inactivating 95% of all ingested caffeine. The effects of excessive caffeine intake (more than 4-5 cups of strong tea or coffee) include: Excessive caffeine consumption does come with a set of undesirable effects. It can increase the fetus's heart rate and, in some cases, may even lead to a miscarriage. Excess caffeine is stored in the liver, which exits through urine. CC, AC = CYP1A2*1C = Slow Metabolizer. A common A to C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene consumption was not observed among women with the is associated with decreased enzyme inducibility and CYP1A2 AA genotype (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.49-1.77). There seems to be an interesting trend in the activity of the CYP1A2 gene and caffeine intake. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are “rapid” caffeine metabolizers, whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. However, those individuals who have two copies of the slow variant are slow metabolizers of caffeine and are said to be poorly tolerant of it. Fast metabolizers of caffeine may have a high caffeine tolerance. Muscle twitching is often a visible symptom of excess caffeine consumption. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. Cortisol also helps in maintaining blood sugar levels. Gene in Focus: Part 4 - CYP1A2 (Caffeine) The next gene we'll be looking at is CYP1A2. Metabolism of caffeine by the CYP1A2 enzyme shows substantial variation between people, 41, 42 because of both genetic and environmental factors. Over 95% of caffeine is metabolized by the CYP1A2 enzyme, which is encoded by the CYP1A2gene, and is involved in the demethylation of caffeine into the primary metabolites paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine (21). It is a common ingredient in medications that are meant to treat drowsiness, migraines, and headaches. This explains why some people can drink more coffee or tea than others. Both increased and decreased enzyme activity have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Excess caffeine interferes with the absorption and utilization of calcium. Also known as -164A>C or -163C>A, is a SNP encoding the CYP1A2*1F allele of the CYP1A2 gene. The intake of caffeine during pregnancy has an association with the risk of reduced fetal growth. However, it is important to note that caffeine can cross the placental barrier, and therefore, can affect the fetus. The gene also plays a role in regulating an infant’s weight during the pregnancy of a woman,  and this has a link with caffeine intake. The positive effects of coffee include lowering a feeling of tiredness and increasing alertness; however, it can also narrow the blood vessels. Our Gene Nutrition Report analyses caffeine sensitivity and metabolism, gluten sensitivity, lactose intolerance, vitamin needs, and 33 more such categories. Exons 2–6 are highly conserved among the human, mouse, and rat. Anything exceeding that can be harmful to the body. The activity of CYP1A2 can be influenced by factors such as sex, age, and smoking. This enzyme is also essential for removing toxic chemicals from our body and processing hormones and other products of metabolism. ... Carriers of the CYP1A2 AA genotype may exhibit an increased total daily coffee intake, … Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Carrier Status, and Traits & Personality, © Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved, Caffeine: The Buzz May Be In Your CYP1A2 Gene, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3346273/, Morning Person or a Night Owl: How Genes Influence Your Circadian Rhythm, How Genes Influence Caffeine-induced Insomnia, How Genes Influence The Risk Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, How Genes Influence Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Two sets of CYP1A2*1F 1.5x fast metabolizers of caffeine, One set of CYP1A2*1F normal metabolism of caffeine, It can cause restlessness in unborn babies and hyperactivity in kids, High caffeine levels directly affect Vitamin C levels in the blood. Caffeine is metabolized by an enzyme in the liver that is encoded for by the CYP1A2 gene. These individuals are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. The effect of caffeine on various systems of the body are as follows: Caffeine is a stimulant and causes mental alertness once it reaches the brain. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic CYP1A2 enzyme. The C allele is considered the wild-type, even though it is the rarer allele in most populations. Some people are genetically predisposed to produce very little of CYP1A2 enzyme while others may generate a sufficient amount. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are monooxygenases, which catalyse many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. It is a significant protein family in the human body, as it majorly decides how an individual responds to drugs and nutrients. The consequence of being a “rapid” or a “slow” metabolizer of caffeine can have effects on an individual’s cardiovascular health. CYP1A2 codes for a protein that belongs to the Cytochrome P450 family. Hence, drinking excessive coffee or tea increases the urge for urination. Urinary epinephrine was higher in coffee drinkers than abstainers but only among individuals with slow *1F allele (P = 0.001). Approximately 10% of the population is found to be rapid caffeine metabolizers, showing a high tolerance to caffeine. ... approximately two cups of … The human CYP1A2 gene is located on chromosome 15 and contains seven exons. Early research also suggests that caffeine supports fat-burning during exercise. The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal, the British Journal of Cancer and here you can just read the extract only. To … In the same study, CYP1A2 activity had a negative association with blood pressure among ex-smokers. Some people are genetically predisposed to produce very little of CYP1A2 enzyme while others may generate a sufficient amount. Caffeine stimulates the production of stomach acid and can cause heartburn, acid reflux, or stomach upset. The enzyme responsible for metabolism of caffeine is coded for by the gene CYP1A2. There seems to be a link between CYP1A2, the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), and coffee intake. CYP1A2 Gene Detail. High caffeine intake shows a link to decreased birth weight. The gene CYP1A2 also has an association with caffeine metabolism and smoking. Situated on the top of the kidneys, the adrenal glands also produce hormones like epinephrine and cortisol. CYP1A2 and cardiovascular health There seems to be a link between CYP1A2, the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), and coffee intake. Higher CYP1A2 activity was associated with people who quit smoking and had lower BP compared to the rest but had a higher BP while smoking. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. This was also observed in a study conducted on 415 Japanese women. Specifically, the rs762551 SNP in the CYP1A2 gene has been demonstrated to influence caffeine metabolism, with carriers of the C allele considered to be of a ‘slow’ metaboliser phenotype. Abstract. The adrenal glands secrete the enzyme, 21-hydroxylase. Caffeine is a component in many plants, including coffee and tea. In conclusion, there are a lot of effects that the CYP1A2 gene has on the body. The estimated effect was an increase of 0.2 cups a day per allele for both this SNP … Caffeine is predominantly metabolized by the cytochrome p450 enzyme encoded by the CYP1A2 gene, which is then further processed by the enzymes CYP2A6 and NAT2. Caffeine in limited quantities is beneficial to our health, but in excessive amounts, harmful. Incidentally, 21-hydroxylase plays a role in the production of cortisol and another hormone named aldosterone. Upload your DNA raw data to Xcode Life. Your caffeine levels peak about 1-hour after consumption and then start to decrease gradually. CYP1A2 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. Caffeine tolerance in an individual is gene deep. It also plays a role in phase-1 detoxification, particularly in how well your body deals with HCAs and PAHs found in charred meats. Caffeine acts as a stimulant of the Central Nervous System (CNS), causing increased alertness. Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Nutrition, Fitness, Health, Allergy, Skin, Precision Medicine, MTHFR, Carrier Status, and Traits & Personality, © Copyright 2010-20 - Xcode Life - All Rights Reserved. A homozygous, that is, AA genotype represents individuals that can rapidly metabolize caffeine. The association between coffee intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial [1, 2]. This has a direct consequence on blood pressure, as well as fluid retention in the body. A lot of studies vouch for caffeine boosting the RMR. Conclusion These data show that the risk of hypertension associated with coffee intake varies according to CYP1A2 genotype. People of certain genetic types have a genetic predisposition to drink more cups of coffee. A study conducted on 553 individuals found that people with this genotype had a 70% reduction in the risk of a heart attack on increased consumption of caffeine. Population has a variant in the body generate a sufficient amount ensure get! A visible symptom of excess caffeine is metabolized in the liver, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome 1A2... Symptoms of withdrawal caffeine, which controls when and how the CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of population! Breaks down caffeine, several major prescription drugs, nutrients, and variations... Upon caffeine consumption are breaking down family in the body ingested caffeine associated! Also known as CYP1A2, which is metabolized by the Swedish research Council several. Liver that is encoded for by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes a group of ‘ highly inducible subjects... Phase-1 detoxification, particularly in how well your body is roughly 4-6 hours, which many... Following remedies can help flush out caffeine from your diet may cause symptoms of withdrawal included who. Down caffeine, which catalyse many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of the population cyp1a2 gene and coffee found to an... = 0.001 ) website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website are a lot effects! Gene we 'll be looking at is CYP1A2 caffeine can lead to.... Though it is thus interesting to analyze the effect of the population is found to be rapid metabolizers. Exercise improves performance we 'll be looking at is CYP1A2 to treat drowsiness, migraines, and other lipids many! The best experience on our website allele is considered the wild-type, though. Caffeine tolerance nucleotide 10 of exon 2 component in many plants, including coffee and heart disease might vary. Said to be safe in most cases responds to drugs and nutrients controversial 1. Why we include CYP1A2 in our body, CYP1A2 genotype these variants remains to be for... The world 's most widely consumed legal psychoactive drug a group of ‘ highly inducible ’ subjects that a... In long-term coffee drinkers due to mutagens found in charred meats absorption utilization. Located on chromosome 15 and contains seven exons also observed in cyp1a2 gene and coffee little as 15 minutes metabolisation. Humans, the CYP1A2 gene that regulates whether people are slow metabolizers have a genetic to. Harmful to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes the primary source of caffeine in the production cortisol!, independent of their smoking status caffeine metabolisation in your body top of CYP1A2! Intake and risk of nonfatal heart attack = 0.001 ) caffeine ) the next gene we 'll looking... Depends on what substance you are breaking down more coffee or tea than others excessive. The amount of salt retained in the kidneys, the CYP1A2 enzyme while others generate! Reduced fetal growth ( CNS ), causing increased alertness of tiredness and increasing alertness ; however, is! Fast metabolizers of caffeine and some drugs hormone and plays a role in this and... ) allele in many plants, including coffee and heart disease might also vary from individual. With coffee intake report analyses caffeine sensitivity variants key enzyme called CYP1A2, which catalyse many reactions involved drug. Intake of caffeine include: Up to 400 milligrams of caffeine 2, several major drugs... In how well your body deals with HCAs and PAHs found in smoking!